Darwinians Still Justify Genetic Determinism

first_imgOne of the most dangerous philosophies in the history of mankind is still embedded in modern Darwinism.In a recent post, we laughed at two evolutionary just-so stories that extrapolated animal behavior into human behavior. Remember, though, that animal behavior is encoded by their genes, and that’s no laughing matter when genetic determinism is extrapolated to humans. It sucks all the air out of morality, making humans pawns of an amoral, aimless natural process with no accountability.Some personal beliefs and morals may stem from genetics (Science Daily). The authors at Penn State try to qualify their genetic determinism with the word “some” — “some personal beliefs and morals” may stem from genetics. What other source is there? To evolutionists, genetic change by mutation and selection is ultimately all there is.“Most people assume that parenting shapes the development of virtuous character in children via entirely environmental pathways,” Neiderhiser said. “But our results suggest there are also heritable influences. This doesn’t mean that if parents are conscientious that their children also will be regardless of how the children are parented. It does mean, however, that children inherit a tendency to behave in a particular way and that this shouldn’t be ignored.”Who decides what is virtuous in Darwinland? The only standard is survival, isn’t it? That is completely amoral. Genocide qualifies for the fittest group that survives. Later, the determinists again qualify their stance, saying,“Your genes are not totally deterministic of who you are,” Ramos said. “Genes simply give you a potential. People still make their own choices and have agency in shaping who they become.”But once again, Darwinists have no choice or agency in their toolkit. It’s all mutation and selection, resulting in genetic changes. To have choice, you have to have free will and a soul.How did reading and writing evolve? Neuroscience gives a clue (The Conversation). Your clue that Derek Hodgson is a genetic determinist is in the thought that reading and writing “evolved.” No free will in that idea; you just carry out behaviors when you scratch on a stone or type at a keyboard. The self-refuting nature of this assertion is self-evident, because Hodgson’s genes made him say this. It could be argued that language and writing “evolve” by convention, which implies human minds that can freely choose how to represent their thoughts on material substances and in vocal sounds, but that is not what he is talking about.But how was this possible? Neuroscientific research has shown that writing text involves the premotor cortex of the brain, which drives manual skills. My theory therefore suggests that reading and writing evolved when our passive perception for discerning things started to interact with manual dexterity.In other words, you are a passive marionette governed by invisible strings reacting to natural selection. Words in a book are mere marks on a page like scratches on a stone.That said, some researchers believe that early marks were symbolic rather than aesthetic and that writing evolved from encoding information in them. However I argue this now seems increasingly unlikely. Early marks look similar to each other over an immense period of time. If the marks were symbolic, we would expect to see far more variation across space and time, just as we do in modern writing systems. But this is not the case.All this points to the probability that the earliest marks were aesthetic in that they derive from the early visual cortex’s preference for basic configurations. And it could have begun as early as Homo erectus, which lived from about 1.8m to 500,000 years ago.How evolutionary theory guides policy (Nature). This is the scariest of the three articles we are taking a look at. David Sloan Wilson, the New Teacher who wants Evolution for Everyone, is back. He sees all the detailed negotiations in national governments and foreign policy as mere manifestations of Darwinism. And Nature likes his new book about it. Even the title is scary for lovers of liberty and justice for all: This View of Life: Completing the Darwinian Revolution. Head for the hills! The Brave New World is upon us.Wilson’s passion for multilevel selectionist thinking, and his relentless optimism, give the book something of a messianic flavour: in places, I detect leaps of faith, for example in the belief that well-functioning groups can solve our problems of collective action. There is no false advertising, however. The very title (albeit cribbed from the end of Charles Darwin’s 1859 On the Origin of Species) portends a personal perspective. The result is utterly fascinating and beautifully written.He addresses deep questions about humanity: how we can avoid physical or mental illnesses, raise children, make groups more effective, create sustainable economies and nurture better planetary stewards.This is a recipe for global socialism, which always brings with it totalitarianism, elitism, and slavery. The elites will try to keep the peasant hens producing eggs for them.Things get more interesting for policy when Wilson turns to what he calls the “problem of goodness”. Literature on the evolution of cooperation — such as the 2011 A Cooperative Species by Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis — gives us plausible scientific reasons for goodness triumphing over evil, or selflessness over selfishness. Multilevel selection is important here. Wilson’s favourite example is an experiment showing how to increase caged hens’ egg production. You select not for the most fertile hens in each generation (co-housed, they will peck each other to death), but for the multi-hen cages with the highest productivity (where more positive social interactions predominate).Humans don’t live in cages, but group living is a fundamental adaptation of our species. In a wink of geological time, humanity moved from small pre-Neolithic tribal groups to large nation-states, with transnational religious identities and (albeit weak) global governance institutions. All this reasonably suggests a role for multilevel selection. We know that social groups work effectively when they have clearly delineated membership, are relatively egalitarian and police themselves. Wilson recounts the huge success of a “school within a school” programme with these features for students in Binghamton, New York, who were at risk of dropping out of high school. He also discusses the effectiveness of local “block clubs” in run-down parts of Buffalo, New York, and other often well-controlled studies demonstrating the success of groups that follow these design principles in producing socially preferable outcomes.Isn’t that nice to speak of “design principles” for multilevel selection? Beware fake words. Who defines what is “good”? Who designs “socially preferable outcomes”? The powerful elites who run everything, of course, and teach the peasants that they are products of selection. The elites, meantime, excuse themselves from the same rules of “multilevel selection” that everyone else is enslaved to. They make the selections now. They have reached godhood.Reviewer Monique Borgerhoff Mulder welcomes this study on Darwinian solutions to social issues. She says Wilson’s book should be on everyone’s bedside table. Everyone’s cell table, that is, next to the hole in the floor.People have no idea the horrors they are in for if this kind of thinking goes mainstream. The 20th century was a huge, awful demonstration of “selectionist” thinking imposing itself on national policy. Now that we have instant access across the globe and orbital surveillance, there will be no place to hide. We will be praying for a Rapture. (Visited 416 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

South African-French collaboration sings of Madiba Skies

first_imgElectrifying performances are what you can expect at Under Madiba Skies. (Image: I Support Do You)Nelson Mandela became the first democratically elected president of South Africa in 1994; his inaugural speech, in which he spoke of freedom, the future, reconciliation and renewal, still resonates today.“It always seems impossible, until it is done,” he said, prompting musicians from South Africa and France to interpret his words in a special performance in which many influences and cultures come together on stage.This meeting of musical chairs goes by the name of Under Madiba Skies, and they will be performing in Pretoria, Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town from 29 October to 1 November.On 29 October, catch them at Alliance Française Pretoria; on 30 October, they are in Johannesburg at Alliance Française Johannesburg; on 31 October they will be at Ikhaya le Langa in Langa in Cape Town; and they finish off their tour in Durban at Rainbow Restaurant. All performances are free, except the final show in Durban, for which tickets are R60.A MEETING OF DIFFERENT CULTURESIn Under Madiba Skies, French band Gran Kino has come together with a number of South African musicians, including Manelis, Ayanda Nhlangothi, Jitsvinger and Burni Aman, to share their vision of South Africa today.This collaboration, which began in 2013, has spawned several songs. Whether from Durban, rapping in isiZulu, from Johannesburg singing with a traditional sweetness, or from Cape Town rapping in Afrikaans, the vision is mutual: coming together on one stage, uniting different languages, visions and ideas. Above all, the venture celebrates an endless artistic richness.The music weaves together traditional songs, rock, hip-hop and acoustic piano and voice. The performers are colourful and embody values of peace and openness to the world.Under Madiba Skies released a four-track EP in 2013; the first single was called Brand New Day, and is available online.The artists see Madiba’s inaugural speech as a prophecy and feel honoured to bring his word to listeners around the world. It is also an opportunity to show the world what South Africa has to offer.Their ideals dovetail with South Africa’s National Development Plan or Vision 2030, which has an aim to seal Africa’s place in the world and bring about nation building through social cohesion.In 2013, the group successfully toured France with performances at some of the biggest world music festivals in that country, such as Festival Generic and The Worlstock Festival. In 2014, they visited South America.The first Under Madiba Skies single, Brand New Day, was playlisted on Radio France International and other French radio stations. Songs from the EP were also playlisted on radio stations in Belgium, Germany, Greece, Lebanon, Poland, Italy, Spain and Hong Kong, among other countries.AUDIENCE APPRECIATIONIt seems the collaboration has touched many, with audiences around the globe appreciating the performances:“I wanted to congratulate you, to thank you, to tell you how much this moment had touched me. My emotions about your performance were so strong, I was not able to do anything the days following your concert.”“It is this simple message I want to convey to you: through your involvement with a bit of soul, Madiba was in Macon, and the permanence of the soul softens the pain caused by the sad news of his passing. For me, as for many, Madiba remains alive.”“It was an evening of great splendour and generosity… Your concert was like a bomb of talent: energy, originality, crossroads of music and styles. A true rainbow of musicians and rhythms.”last_img read more

Geocaching.com Caption Contest 22 – Win a Barely Coveted Prize

first_img19 Lackeys voted to award the winner of the twentieth Geocaching.com Caption Contest a barely coveted prize. Click on the image at right to discover the winning caption from the previous Geocaching.com Caption Contest.Explore the wit and wisdom of geocachers by checking out all the Geocaching.com Caption Contests.Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedGeocaching.com Caption Contest 19 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeJanuary 5, 2011In “Community”Geocaching.com Caption Contest 25 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeJune 30, 2011In “Community”Geocaching Caption Contest 20 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeJanuary 18, 2011In “Community” WINNING CAPTION: “This is knot what I wood have expected.” – 1Delta10Tango.Try your caption writing skills in the twenty-second installment of our Geocaching.com Caption Contest.   You could become the proud winner of a barely coveted prize! What caption would you write? “You’ve barked up the right tree.” You can do better!Caption contest prizeSubmit your caption by clicking on “Comments” below. Please include your geocaching username in all entries. Then, explore the captions that other geocachers have crafted.You can influence the voting. “Like” the caption that you think should win.  If you think your caption should win, convince your fellow geocachers to “like” your caption. Lackeys decide between the top captions to crown the winner of this Geocaching.com Caption Contest.The winner receives a barely coveted prize from Groundspeak Headquarters. This time it’s a much coveted prize, a Jeremy Irish Trackable Gnome.Click on the image to discover the winning caption from this contestlast_img read more

Making the Best PEX Connections

first_imgCharacteristics vary by typeThere are actually three types of PEX, as a reference article supplied by GBA senior editor Martin Holladay explains (see the “Related articles” sidebar below). Types A, B, and C are manufactured differently, which affects characteristics such as flexibility, resistance to chlorine and oxidation, coil memory, and cost. The lettered designations aren’t grades, just references to the manufacturing process.For Richard McGrath, PEX-A is at the top of the heap. “PEX-A is produced with a better manufacturing process than PEX-B as the crosslinking takes place during the extrusion process,” McGrath writes. “PEX-A products usually achieve an 85% crosslinking while PEX-B products average a 65-70%.” Our expert’s opinionHere’s how GBA technical director Peter Yost sees it:I think you can collect just about as many opinions and recommendations on PEX tubing and fittings as there are types of tubing and fittings. When I asked around, I could not come up with a clear “winner” for either.So, let me add these two options to consider:Aquatherm polypropylene pipe. It’s inert, doesn’t react with chemicals, and withstands high pressure and temperatures, and the pipes are heat-fused — so the fitting is thicker and stronger than the base pipe. If you are looking for “forever” pipe — and are willing to pay for it — this is the way to go. I have seen this in many commercial buildings of late. When I ask, “Why polypropylene?”, the response is: it’s forever pipe, and can handle the widest range of temperatures and stuff dissolved in the water. (See Image #4, below.)Legend HyperPure pipe. A newer and therefore less proven candidate for those interested in a 100% recyclable alternative to PEX, this is a bi-modal polyethylene raised temperature (PE-RT) tubing. The resin for this tubing comes from Dow, and it’s called bi-modal because there are both high-molecular weight elements for strength and low-molecular weight elements for flexibility. Neither Legend nor Dow are exactly newcomers to piping and chemical formulations respectively, so while this piping solution may be less proven, it’s not the type of “high-risk” product we might associate with lesser-known start-up companies. PEX-A is more resistant to the chemicals commonly found in plumbing and heating systems than what it has replaced, he adds, and long-term testing by Uponor, one of the manufacturers of PEX-A, is very encouraging. The company holds an unofficial record for resisting high temperature and pressure, McGrath says, holding up to 175 pounds per square inch and 203°F between 1973 and 2009 — a stretch of 36 years.“There is not another manufacturer that can make that claim,” he says. From PexUniverse: Choosing the right type and brand for your projectHow Safe is PEX Tubing?Q&A: Can PEX pipe be reused after a fitting is removed? Q&A: Is it reasonable to use 3/8-inch PEX supply lines to all fixtures?Green Basics: Efficient Plumbing Supply Layouts Comparing methods for connecting tubing and fittingsPEX is often connected to a fitting with a metal band that is tightened with a dedicated crimping tool. The pressure of the ring is designed to permanently and reliably seal the connection against leaks. The crimping rings are made from stainless steel, copper, or brass.Uponor, however, uses a different type of connection. As demonstrated in this video, a plastic ring is fitted over the end of the tubing, and then an expansion tool is used to enlarge the tubing so it can fit over the end of the fitting. Very shortly after the two parts are brought together, the PEX tries to return to its original shape and as it does it tightens itself around the end of the fitting (see Images #2 and #3, below).The tubing, says McGrath, is always tightening around the fitting, unlike with a crimped connection in which the tubing is pushing back against the crimping ring and trying to loosen.“You cannot crimp Uponor PEX,” McGrath says. “A few years ago I was called to a group of modular homes to determine why the Uponor piping was leaking. Long story short, it was not the tubing leaking; the manufacturer of the home thought it would be OK to save on some fittings and used crimp rings and fittings made for other pipe, which are much smaller in diameter.“PEX always wants to get back to its original size and form (due to its ‘memory’),” he continues. “If you use other than Uponor fittings and crimp it, it will leak, and there will be no warranty for you.”Uponor frequently gets calls from plumbers who grow “argumentative” when told they can’t use crimping rings the plumbers already have on their trucks, McGrath says.“Those folks are always told that you can use them but there will be no warranty coverage,” he says. “What does that tell you? It clearly tells me that you cannot do it and expect any sort of system integrity. Uponor does not make a crimp ring fitting nor will a crimp ring fit over Uponor tubing when a Uponor fitting is used.” Mixing and matching doesn’t workMcGrath also warns against trying to use Uponor fittings with PEX-B tubing, or using incompatible fittings with PEX-A tubing made by Uponor or someone else.“Uponor’s fittings with PEX-B is quite entertaining,” he says. “One would have to expand the PEX-B and you can, but the tubing will probably eventually leak because the molecular linking is of such a low percentage and, again, why would one do it?”Results are equally disappointing when improperly sized fittings are used on Uponor’s or another brand of PEX-A, he continues.“The fact that PEX-B and C use a crimp shows their inferiority since they are warranted to not leak all the while the product should be attempting to reach its original dimension,” he says. “Remember, this tubing has memory. Turns out that PEX-B and C have less memory, apparently, since they are willing to stay in the constrained size, whereas the PEX-A products will push out against the crimp ring, whether stainless steel or copper, and a leak path will form every time.”center_img Actually, there are alternativesRick Van Handel doesn’t argue the quality of the Uponor fitting system. But, he says, that has more to do with its unrestricted flow rate than anything.“Whereas barbed fittings are placed inside the tubing, the already smaller inside diameter of PEX (compared to copper) becomes even smaller with these fittings,” he says. “As you know, the Uponor expansion fittings are full flow. However, by your logic, wouldn’t the PEX-A, which was expanded over the barb fitting, want to return to its original size and therefore tighten itself onto the barbed fitting in the same manner it would on an expanded fitting?“I’ve used a lot of PEX-A with stainless cinch clamps on barbed fittings and I’ve never had one leak,” Van Handel continues. “I’ve hydro-tested these to 200 psi with no issues. Also, many people use the same combination for compressed air, which is even harder to seal, with no issues.”Despite McGrath’s protestations, Van Handel says he’s had excellent luck with Uponor tubing and brass fittings.“Personally, I’ve used mostly Nibco brass fittings and I use only Uponor tubing,” Van Handel says. “I haven’t had any leaks. That being said, I haven’t seen a rough-in my area with anything other than PEX-A and barbed fittings and stainless cinch clamps in a few years. It’s what almost all plumbers have gravitated towards in residential installs. In some commercial applications I still see expansion style fittings used or ProPress.“I still agree with you that expansion fittings are likely superior, but to say that cinch clamps will certainly leak is a gross exaggeration,” he adds. “There are millions of these connections in place that are not leaking.”Malcolm Taylor agrees. “For at least a decade, almost every building in British Columbia has been plumbed with PEX and crimp rings,” he says. “I’ve plumbed a half-dozen that way myself and have never had a leak.” Dealing with chlorine and chemical odorSandbo’s water source is a well, and well water is not typically chlorinated. That, says Nate G, removes one potential source of worry with PEX tubing.“PEX in a ‘forever house’ … should be downstream of a water filtration system that removes chlorine,” Nate writes. “The reason is that chlorine eventually oxidizes and embrittles the pipe over time as the sacrificial anti-oxidizing agents are, well, sacrificed. With no chlorine in the water, this risk disappears. You also want high-quality low-zinc fittings. Don’t cheap out.”Charlie Sullivan raises another issue: the unwelcome chemical taste that PEX tubing added to the water in his house.“I’ll put in a vote for PEX-B,” Sullivan says. “I got my kitchen sink changed over from lead-soldered copper to Uponor PEX-A about a year and a half ago, and I found the taste terrible in the first few months — a strong plastic taste. I still flush the pipe before drawing a gallon of drinking water to save in a pitcher, even though I probably don’t need to. I haven’t done a controlled comparison to PEX-B, but given the comparison Martin linked to, I’d expect it to be significantly better in that regard.” Building his “forever house,” Dean Sandbo is mulling what type of tubing to use for his plumbing supply lines. He has narrowed the choice to one of two types of cross-linked polyethylene (PEX): PEX-A or PEX-B.Key issues, Sandbo notes in his Q&A post at GBA, are how long the tubing will last, and whether there are safety concerns — that is, will the PEX tubing leach chemicals into his drinking water?“I am on a well,” he writes. “Any input as to the longevity and safety of these two different types of pipes?”Although that’s where the discussion starts, GBA readers quickly turn to another potential issue: What’s the best way of achieving a leak-free connection between tubing and fittings?That’s the topic for this Q&A Spotlight. RELATED ARTICLES last_img read more

Saving Sustainably: Installing Drains and Vents

first_imgEditor’s note: This is one in a series of blogs detailing the construction of a net-zero energy house in Point Roberts, Washington, by an owner-builder with relatively little building experience. A list of Matt Bath’s GBA articles can be found at the bottom of this page. You’ll find Matt Bath’s full blog, Saving Sustainably, here. If you want to follow project costs, you can keep an eye on a budget worksheet here. Now that the frame of the house is complete and safe from the elements, I have some flexibility on what to do next. I could, for instance, decide to finish the exterior of the house, put the shingles on, run electrical wire, or install the ductwork. There really isn’t anything to hold me back from working on any of those things. I decided that the most intelligent thing to do would be to finish installing the roofing as soon as possible whenever I had some decent weather, and when it was too wet to be on the roof I will work on the plumbing. The drain, waste, and vent (DWV) system really needs to be done first because there are three vent pipes that will penetrate the roof, so I want to have those installed before putting the shingles on. The only other roof penetration will be the Soladeck for the solar array electrical connection.RELATED ARTICLESSensible PlumbingService Cavities for Wiring and PlumbingGreen Plumbing Systems Save Water and Energy The DWV is one of two systems that make up the plumbing of the house, the other one being the water supply system. The job of the DWV system is to remove water from any plumbing fixtures in the house (drain), transport it to the septic system (waste), and ensure that air pressure doesn’t interfere with the process (vent). Most people have a pretty good sense of how the first two parts work but are completely oblivious to the operation of the last one. An easy way to explain it is to think back to when you were a kid playing with a drinking straw. You could fill the straw with water, hold a finger over one end of the straw, and the water would magically defy gravity. The venting part of the DWV system is the equivalent of removing your finger from the end of the straw to allow the water to slide out. Without it, all of the pipes installed to drain and waste would be completely ineffective. In fact, best practices allow for each individual fixture to have a vent of its own. Some of these vents are eventually combined together until they exit out of the roof. Start with the building code There is quite a bit of planning that goes into installing a DWV system, but all of the rules are clearly spelled out in the building code. Washington State uses the Uniform Plumbing Code (UPC), whereas other areas may use the International Residential Code (IRC). Planning starts with deciding on the number and type of plumbing fixtures you will have in your house. Next, you will use the tables in the code to figure out what size pipes to use for the drains and vents. The code dictates minimum pipe sizes and applies a number to each fixture called a “drainage fixture unit value” or DFU. That becomes important when you decide to combine drains or vents. The system would be pretty inefficient if every single fixture had its own independent drain and vent, all running separately into the sewer or septic. The code allows you to use larger pipe sizes than the minimums and combine smaller pipes into bigger ones as long as the total DFU in the pipe is below the maximum allowed for that particular pipe size. Additionally, each fixture must have a trap, and the codes spell out what size trap must be used for each fixture. A trap is the U-shaped part of the pipe you may have seen under your sink, and it’s a monumentally important part of the DWV system. Without a trap, noxious fumes from the sewer or septic tank would be free to travel directly into your home.  Water in the trap prevents those fumes from entering the house. Armed with this knowledge, you are now prepared to grab a piece of paper and a pencil (or a computer with CAD) and plan your very own DWV system. There is no wrong way to do it as long as you stay within the rules. But if you are wise about things you may be able to dramatically reduce the amount of piping you need to buy and install.  The best practice is to design the system before the framing has been started so that you can plumb in any hard-to-reach areas, as I did before installing the subfloor. Remember to include a slope Installing the plumbing is a relatively simple process that involves drilling holes in studs and joists, cutting the pipe to fit, and cementing the fittings to the pipe. The key is to always remember the old plumbing sage’s advice: “Don’t be a dope, slope.” Every drainpipe must be angled so that it descends towards the septic (or sewer) at the rate of 1/4 inch  for every foot of pipe. Vent pipes, on the other hand, should be installed level, or with only a very slight slope toward the drain. Flexible metal straps must be used to attach the pipes to the framing at least every 4 feet on a horizontal run. This will ensure that the slope is maintained even if the pipes get jostled in any way. Drain lines should be secured firmly with flexible metal strapping. I had already installed the drains for the first floor way back, before I poured the concrete slab on which the house is built. Furthermore, I had installed all of the vents and drains that ran through the load-bearing wall when I laid down the subfloor. This left very little plumbing to complete on the first story – basically just the stub-outs and vents for the kitchen and bathroom sinks, and excavation of the tub and toilet drains. Sink stub-outs are typically placed 19 inches above the floor level. I attached a test cap to the end of each stub-out, and once the entire DWV system has been installed I’ll fill all of the pipes with water to make sure I don’t have any leaks. If the water test is successful, I will cut off the test caps and install the traps for the sinks. After the stub-outs, the pipe continues as a vent up to the second story. Uncovering drains for tub and toilet One of the last things I did before pouring the slab was to place a cardboard box around the trap for the bathtub and fill it with gravel.  A thin layer of concrete had been skimmed over the top so the box was now completely invisible. I took a sledgehammer lightly to the spot where I knew the outer edges of the box were, and it cracked away pretty easily. Once the thin layer of concrete was removed, I was able to scoop out the rocks and uncover the trap. I was pleased to see that it was exactly 15 1/2 inches from the wall, which placed it right in the center of the tub. Later, I will use some leveling compound to ensure the area below the tub is perfectly level, and then connect the trap to a tailpiece that will link the drain and the overflow for the tub. Likewise, a thin film of concrete covered the drain for the toilet (also called a closet bend).  I had to chip it away so that I could align the metal ring correctly. In the photo below, you may be able to spot two mistakes I made during the concrete pour. The water supply for the toilet should come up inside the wall, but perhaps I didn’t secure it well enough and it got jostled during the pour. I will end up just plumbing it up out of the floor instead of out of the wall which is the standard practice. The supply line for the toilet should have been routed through the wall directly behind. In this case, that won’t be possible. The other mistake is that the toilet flange is supposed to sit up 1/4 inch or so above the concrete so that after the tile is set in place it is sitting on the tile. I will most likely have to cut it off, go out and buy a new one, and reattach it. If I leave it as is, the connection between the toilet and the flange will need to be filled with an extra wax ring or a spacer. Both methods are widely used but neither is as safe as just installing the flange at the correct height. When it comes to the possibility of dirty toilet water leaking, you can never be too safe! Drain lines installed between the joists For the second story, the drain lines run between the floor joists just under the subfloor. I drilled holes in the top plates of the first story walls and then installed the horizontal drains between the joists. There was just enough space to ensure they were adequately sloped. The photo below shows the stub-out for the washer and dryer.  You will notice there are two drains, one for the washer and one for the ventless dryer. Instead of venting the moist, hot air to the outside, as would be the case with a conventional dryer, this one will keep the heat in the house. The water drains out, just like the washer water. The rough-in for the washer and dryer drain has two outlets instead of one. The second drain will accommodate the ventless dryer. In addition, there were stubouts for the shower, two sinks, and another toilet. The closet bend for the second story is screwed down to the subfloor once it has been aligned in just the same fashion as the one on the first floor. After the stubouts, the vents continue up through the walls and connect above the bottom chord of the trusses.  To satisfy building code, at least three of the vents must continue through the roof. Through the roof The whole point of working on the plumbing first was to make it easier to install the shingles. I used interlocking aluminum shingles due to their proven record of longevity and their ability to stand up to the high winds and salty air of Point Roberts. As an added benefit, the shingles are made from 95% recycled material, and they reflect heat back into the building rather than absorb it like most roofs. One of the few downsides is that because the shingles interlock, the only way to adjust one of the shingles in the middle of the roof is to start removing them from the top corner and continue removing them until you get to the one you want to adjust. Obviously that wasn’t something I wanted to take a chance on having to do, and if I tried to just drill through the singles after they were installed they would get bent. The best approach was to complete the DWV system and install the vents through the roof before installing the shingles. According to building code, plumbing vents must extend a minimum of 6 inches above the roof.  Due to the slope of the roof, an oval shape must be cut out to accommodate the round pipe. Once the three vent pipes were brought through the roof, I glued test caps onto the two lower vents but left the highest one open. This completed the DWV system so that every single outlet was capped and sealed. Now it was time to test for leaks. I dragged a hose up to the uncapped vent and filled it up all the way to the top to ensure the entire system was filled. Then I turned a full water bottle upside down and placed it over the top. This gave me a reference to look at to check for leaks. If I could no longer see the water in the bottle, then there obviously would be a leak somewhere. Fortunately, I had done an adequate job of cementing all the ABS together and there were no leaks. The test caps will remain in place until the water supply system has been installed and tested, at which point I will be ready to have the building inspector come by to check everything. The only other roof penetration will be for the electrical connections to the rooftop solar array. I will be using a Soladeck to both protect the roof opening as a flashing and house the electrical connections all in one. The Soladeck can be positioned pretty much anywhere. I decided the best spot would be near the top of the solar array at the center of the roof ridge. The key was to position it so several of the screws would attach to one of the trusses, which will provide a much stronger connection than just attaching it to the roof sheathing. With all of the roof penetrations complete, I was ready to install the shingles. Other posts by Matt Bath: An Introduction Foundation Formwork Designing and Installing a Septic System Pouring the Slab Framing the First Floor Framing the Second Floor Framing the Roof Shingling the Roof Wall Sheathinglast_img read more

Fajardo, Gilas brace for bigger, stronger Australian side

first_imgLATEST STORIES Not that he’s expecting anything less as Fajardo knows how tall the task is for Gilas to score the upset against the 10th-ranked team in the world in their home floor in Melbourne.“Australia is really a strong team. So we really have to follow coach’s game plan because we can’t beat them individually. They’re bigger than us and we expect to have a hard time against them, but we need to execute our plays as a team,” he said. AFP official booed out of forum Slow and steady hope for near-extinct Bangladesh tortoises Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Trending Articles PLAY LIST 00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles00:50Trending Articles01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding 2 ‘newbie’ drug pushers fall in Lucena sting The Cebuano slotman and the rest of the national team were subjected to another tough session against these five foreigners led by former Ateneo big man Chibueze Ikeh.From 5-foot-11 Jayson Castro to the 6-foot-11 Fajardo, the Nationals tried to execute their offense against the towering Nigerian bigs in hopes of mimicking what they can expect in their anticipated draw against Australia in three weeks.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutoutThe four-time PBA MVP, who is used to defending taller reinforcements in the pro league,  feels that this is the kind of training that would prove beneficial for the squad.“They’re a big help for us. They help us plan for our game against Australia because they’re big and strong,” he said.center_img Globe Business launches leading cloud-enabled and hardware-agnostic conferencing platform in PH MOST READ Photo by Tristan Tamayo/ INQUIRER.netOne of the PBA’s rare behemoths, even June Mar Fajardo was dwarfed by the presence of Nigerians in Gilas Pilipinas’ evening practice at Meralco Gym on Monday.“They’re so big,” he quipped.ADVERTISEMENT Contentious IOC meetings kick off with Olympics set to open NEXT BLOCK ASIA 2.0 introduces GURUS AWARDS to recognize and reward industry influencers View comments Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Read Nextlast_img read more