Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook Embed from Getty ImagesTottenham are set to formally complete the signing of Serge Aurier from Paris St-Germain.The Ivory Coast right-back, 24, has been granted a work permit, paving the way for his move to be rubber-stamped.He has already completed a medical and agreed personal terms with Spurs, who had an offer of around £23m accepted by PSG last week.Aurier could therefore make his Premier League debut against Everton on 9 September and his first appearance for Spurs at Wembley in the Champions League clash with Borussia Dortmund four days later.Chelsea have been linked with the player in recent weeks, as have Manchester United.There were reports in the French media that PSG threatened to sell him to Barcelona or Juventus, where a permit would not be required, if Tottenham failed to finalise the signing by Wednesday afternoon.See also:Winks left out of Under-21 squad because of recent injuryCarter-Vickers signs new deal and completes loan moveMisfiring Kane ‘will start to score’Pochettino expecting more Tottenham signingsTottenham stunned by late Burnley goal at WembleyTottenham vs Burnley player ratingsTottenham complete signing of defender AurierTottenham table bid for Swansea’s Llorente
An important mathematical tool used by evolutionists has been discredited. To study life history evolution (i.e., the changes over time in a population’s reproductive age, maximum size, age at death, etc.) evolutionists have relied on Charnov’s concept of life history invariants. These invariants, which are “dimensionless ratios of two life history traits—for instance, age at maturity and average length of life,” according to Gerdien de Jong writing in Science,1 have been a staple of evolutionary models, providing generalizations “leading to an understanding of universal life history strategies.” Now, warns de Jong about work by Nee et al. in the same issue,2 the principal method of detecting life history invariants has been called into question. “The authors have determined that the approach is misleading, throwing the very existence of the concept into doubt.” (Emphasis added in all quotes.) Ratios can fall on a straight line when plotted, suggesting a mathematical relationship, but Nee et al. have demonstrated that the relationships are figments of the method and not necessarily real. The same data plotted between groups of animals might yield a straight line, for instance, but when plotted within isolated groups of animals can yield lines offset from one another. “The regression analysis is therefore misleading,” de Jong says. The same problem can exist within other biological models. Are the patterns real, therefore, or contrived? Are they meaningful in evolutionary terms?Life history evolution is not the only field where invariants or universal constants are proposed. The Universal Temperature Dependence of metabolism proposal asserts that the metabolism of all organisms can be described by a single equation. Scaling laws (as, for instance, basic metabolic rate scale as mass to the power 3/4) are called universal over all life. This hankering for universal explanations has been criticized not only on technical grounds but also for ignoring biology and the variation between organisms. Interesting biology might not be in life history invariants but in biological variation.De Jong illustrates, for example, that two species of fish in the same habitat can have completely different ratios of sex to social rank. De Jong doesn’t go so far as to argue that it is a waste of time to look for mathematical relationships in biology, just that “We should be wary of treating an average across species as an explanatory general life history invariant.”1Gerdien de Jong, “Evolution: Is Invariance Across Animal Species Just an Illusion?”, Science, Vol 309, Issue 5738, 1193-1195, 19 August 2005, [DOI: 10.1126/science.1117591].2Nee et al., “The Illusion of Invariant Quantities in Life Histories,” Science, 2005 309: 1236-1239.Evolutionists desperately want their theories to be considered scientific, but the language of science is mathematics. They should recall the difference between the hard sciences and biology, as expressed by the Harvard Law: “Under the most rigorously controlled conditions of pressure, temperature, volume, humidity, and other variables, the organism will do as it *@#&! well pleases.” The deception is even worse when evolutionary psychologists measure human behavior according to Koestler’s Ratomorphic Fallacy, treating people like lab rats, or when they try to describe altruism, whether in humans or bacteria, in terms of the equations of game theory. One of the ugliest of recent examples involved anthropologists trying to measure the evolution of anti-Semitism (see 07/19/2005). Read the quote at the top right of this page again. Is there anything in evolutionary biology that even comes close to Kepler’s Laws or Newton’s Laws in generality and formal structure? Scientific research papers on evolution often contain equations, formulas, and graphs (e.g., 07/21/2005), but if even some of the most basic observable ratios of characteristics between present-day animals can produce misleading relationships, why should anyone trust relationships inferred between dead things lost in imaginary evolutionary prehistory? If the “interesting biology” lies in variation, no pattern of evolution can be rigorously inferred. Thus, evolutionists in their formalisms commit the fallacy of statistics, fooling and being fooled.(Visited 6 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Liberia signed a R113-million grantagreement with the US MillenniumChallenge Corporation to financedevelopment in the country (Image: Hannelie Coetzee,MediaClubSouthAfrica.com. Formore free photos, visit the image library) MEDIA CONTACTS • Amanda Burke +202 521 3850 [email protected] RELATED ARTICLES • SA allocates R500m for black farmers • Poor schools score textbooks • SA colleges get $6.7m boost • $90bn boost to Africa’s economyNosimilo RamelaLiberia has been awarded a R113-million (US$15-million) grant from the US Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) to help it fight poverty, improve primary education for girls, broaden access to land and boost trade.The signing took place at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Liberia’s capital city of Monrovia on 6 July 2010. Speaking at the event, MCC senior advisor Cassandra Butts said the grant would help finance key development areas identified by the Liberian government.“The areas of priorities represent key constraints to economic growth, identified by Liberians as part of their own national development strategy,” she said.Set up by US Congress in January 2004, the MCC is an independent US government aid agency that assists countries committed to economic and political development.The grant will be made available to Liberia through a three-year threshold programme that will focus on challenges highlighted in Liberia’s Poverty Reduction Strategy.One of the objectives is to increase the number of girls enrolling in primary schools and keep them in the school system for as long as possible. The creation of a scholarship programme for girls, providing grants to communities to improve the education environment, mentoring programmes and awareness campaigns are some of the means of achieving this.“Liberia has made tremendous progress in its development effort and this grant will help buttress our poverty reduction strategy,” said Amara Konnah, Liberia’s planning minister.Turning to land issues, the threshold programme is expected to promote equal access to property and increased land security. This will go hand-in-hand with the Liberian government’s plan to boost citizens’ understanding of property rights issues, rebuild land administration and surveying capacity, and make the land registration and transfer process more efficient for locals.The grant will also help the country improve trade policy and practices, particularly when it comes to harmonising tariffs, working with regional and global bodies, and strengthening the regulatory environment.According to the grant agreement, the threshold programme will be administered by the US Agency for International Development (USAID), which will be responsible for coordination, contracting and financial management. The MCC will oversee the programme.The MCC board of directors, who decided that Liberia should get the grant, said the country had made significant progress in many MCC eligibility indicators.USAID said the country showed a strong commitment to transformation aimed at fostering economic growth and poverty reduction.Africa’s long-term ambitionSpeaking at the signing ceremony, Donald Payne , chairperson of the US House Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, congratulated Liberia’s President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and the people of the country for meeting what she called “strict criteria which warrants the threshold agreement”.Payne stressed the importance of schooling in Liberia, especially for girls, and noted Sirleaf’s commitment to this issue. As an accomplished female leader herself, Sirleaf is seen as the ideal role-model for this sector of the population.At the ceremony Sirleaf thanked the host of delegates for visiting Liberia and praised President Barack Obama’s administration for continuing with the MCC programme.She then spoke about the establishment of the Liberian Education Trust, which is providing scholarships for girls to breach the gender gap, but warned that far more still needs to be done.“Retaining them in school is the issue,” she said. “While there may be many girls at the primary level now, by the time they reach upper classes, they begin to drop out due to poverty or sexual abuse. The MCC programme will help our government tackle those problems.”Switching from education to commerce, Sirleaf outlined one of her country’s key policies, which favours moving away from a reliance on aid towards economic growth driven by trade. She concluded that this policy is Africa’s long-term ambition.